US News 'Kitty Litter' Parasite Is Wiping Out Earth’s Rarest Seal

07:30  12 july  2018
07:30  12 july  2018 Source:   nationalgeographic.com

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A disease that originates in domestic cats is hitting Hawaiian monk seals particularly hard.

Toxoplasmosis, also known as " kitty liter disease" is the leading cause of infectious blindness in humans. For example, a parasite known as Sarcocystis, previously found only in the Arctic, is responsible for killing 406 grey seals in the north Atlantic in 2012, Grigg said.

a seal lying on the ground next to a body of water: Hawaiian monk seal RT10 with her third pup on the north shore of Oahu in 2017. © Photograph Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Hawaiian monk seal RT10 with her third pup on the north shore of Oahu in 2017. In May, two critically endangered Hawaiian monk seals were found dead on a beach on Oahu. Both were female, and one was pregnant. After performing a necropsy, veterinarians determined that both animals died of toxoplasmosis, a potentially fatal disease that originates in domestic cats.

For veterinarian Claire Simeone, the deaths of these seals confirmed a sobering suspicion about the disease.

“Females seem to be more likely to die from this disease, and from a conservation standpoint, that’s very concerning,” says Simeone, director of the Ke Kai Ola hospital for Hawaiian monk seals.

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materials. transport. earth . The parasite found in cat feces is being scooped out from litter boxes, flushed down the toilet and funneled into oceans. Toxoplasmosis, also known as " kitty liter disease" is the leading cause of infectious blindness in humans.

Insects & Parasites . Is Kitty Litter Dangerous? I sometimes worry about breathing in the dust from cat litter . The litter ingredient blamed for this alleged effect is the clumping agent, sodium bentonite, used in most major brands of clumping clay cat litter .

The seals, known to U.S. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration researchers as RK60 and RT10, are not the first Hawaiian monk seals to succumb to the disease. Eleven monk seal deaths have been linked to the disease since 2001, but Simeone says the real toll is likely much higher.

This Sept. 15, 2016 file photo shows a Hawaiian monk seal, an endangered species, on a Waikiki beach in Honolulu. © AP This Sept. 15, 2016 file photo shows a Hawaiian monk seal, an endangered species, on a Waikiki beach in Honolulu.

With only around 1,300 Hawaiian monk seals left on Earth, losing any individual—and in particular breeding females—is a crushing blow, Simeone says. 

And it may be just the tip of the iceberg in terms of impacts to marine life.

The single-celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii that causes toxoplasmosis, or “toxo,” has become widespread among marine mammals, due largely to the growing number of feral cats living near watersheds. Though many animals that contract the parasite—including half of the global human population at any given time—weather the infection uneventfully, the disease is particularly lethal to marine creatures.

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Parasite Center. Health problems might be causing your cat to pee outside of the litter box, says Dr. Cathy Lund of City Kitty , a feline-only veterinary practice in Providence, Rhode Island. “Generally you want litter boxes that are out of traffic but not at the end of a scary, trappable tunnel,” says

No way on God' s green earth would I be doing any of that. I wouldn't even have a kitty litter box in my Goodness, The only way to I can see to remedy this would be to wipe out the entire cat species. The second site says that inside cats have very little chance of even having this parasite , this

Now, marine mammal experts are calling on Hawaii’s communities to keep their cat populations in check.

A child watches a Hawaiian monk seal called Hoailona at the Waikiki Aquarium in Honolulu on Tuesday, Jan. 24, 2017. © AP A child watches a Hawaiian monk seal called Hoailona at the Waikiki Aquarium in Honolulu on Tuesday, Jan. 24, 2017.

From Cat to Sea

Any warm-blooded animal can get toxo, but only cats can spread it. Cats are also the only animals known to harbor the infectious form of the parasite.

Infected cats introduce the aptly named “kitty litter parasite” into the environment through their feces. A toxo-ridden cat can poop out billions of parasitic eggs, or oocysts, over the course of its life.

Rain washes oocysts into rivers and streams that drain into the ocean. Once there, the eggs work their way up the marine food web until they find an animal to infect—and it only takes one egg to begin the cycle.

This June 29, 2017 file photo shows a Hawaiian monk seal and her newborn pup on a Waikiki beach in Honolulu. © AP This June 29, 2017 file photo shows a Hawaiian monk seal and her newborn pup on a Waikiki beach in Honolulu.

Once inside a host, toxo parasites force their way into the cells lining the digestive tract and multiply until the cells burst. The army of parasites then moves into the liver, brain, and muscle tissue, creating cysts and inflammation.

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Extract one paw at a time from inside the towel by pulling it out through the nearest opening. Gently brush as much of the trapped litter loose from his paws Wipe the paw down with a damp washcloth. Kitty litter that is stuck in between the paws should dissolve relatively quickly once water is applied.

Kitty Litter Questions (Toxoplasmosis). By Nancy Montgomery. Scary stories about cats and babies abound, most nothing more than superstition. However, if it turns out that you've never been infected, you should take precautions (see the list below) to avoid coming into contact with the parasite .

How the disease manifests itself varies widely across species. In monk seals, toxo can weaken the immune system and cause vital organ failure. In sea otters, the disease can lead to brain infections that swiftly kill the host.

Once oocysts enter the environment, there isn't much anyone can do to remove them. “They’re really tough,” says Patricia Conrad, a professor of parasitology at the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis.

“You can store them in 10 percent bleach for years, take them out, wash them off, and the parasites can still develop.” 

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Ocean Outbreaks

Scientists have identified toxo—previously thought a land-based disease—in whales, dolphins, manatees, seabirds, otters, and other marine creatures in recent years.

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Over the past decade, toxoplasma infection has appeared in a variety of sea mammals including beluga whales, dolphins, sea lions and seals . American Society for Microbiology. (2008, June 5). Unravelling The Mystery Of The Kitty Litter More Clues That Earth -Like Exoplanets Are Indeed Earth -Like.

If you’re digging your way out of the deep freeze, you could’ve encountered this tip on our blog: use salt or kitty litter to melt ice and snow. Think about it: it’ s really nothing more than fancy clay, which means that once snow melts, you’ll end up with gobs of gummy earth that could harden, stick, and

In 2013, scientists estimated that at least half of male California sea otters carry the disease. And last month, researchers in southern Chile reported finding the pathogen in 77 percent of the region’s southern river otters.

“Toxo has been on our radar since the early 2000s, however, our level of concern has really increased over the last few years,” says Michelle Barbieri, a wildlife veterinarian who heads NOAA’s Hawaiian Monk Seal Recovery Program.

“One of the reasons our concern is heightened is because we don’t have very good tools to mitigate it. If a seal swallows a fish hook, we can usually fix it, but with toxoplasmosis, we have a much harder time,” says Barbieri.

In this Feb. 10, 2009, file photo, a Hawaiian monk seal basks in the late afternoon sun on the beach in Hau'ula, on the north shore of Oahu in Honolulu, Hawaii. © AP In this Feb. 10, 2009, file photo, a Hawaiian monk seal basks in the late afternoon sun on the beach in Hau'ula, on the north shore of Oahu in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Barbieri says most of the Hawaiian monk seals infected with toxo die before her team has a chance to treat them. And as a result, the disease has become the leading disease-related cause of death for the species. Found only in Hawaii, Hawaiian monk seals among the most endangered marine mammals in the world.

Hawaiian monk seals were hunted to brink of extinction during the 19th and early 20th century and their population has yet to recover. Disease, low genetic variability, and interactions with fishing gear are among the key threats facing Hawaiian monk seals today.

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And help the environment at the same time (yea, the earth loves you). Spend less time scooping and get back to enjoying your furry friend by simply removing your kitty ’ s cottage, folding the Ten Second Litter Box closed, locking it shut “…It' s high enough that my cat doesn't kick the litter out of the box.”

Certain people have a higher risk than others, but overall, complications are rare . Dust may or may not be visible, but either way, if you inhale contaminated kitty litter dust, the parasites can get into your system. Because of this, it is imperative to always wash your hands after cleaning out the litter box.

Stopping the Spread

Toxoplasmosis is incurable, but not inevitable.

“While we may not know the extent to which this disease is impacting marine mammals, we do know how to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite that causes the disease,” says Angela Amlin, coordinator for the NOAA seal program.

That means keeping domestic cats indoors and sterilizing feral ones, she says. The Hawaiian Humane Society estimates there are 350,000 feral cats on Oahu alone, many of which are fed by humans. There is a law requiring pet owners in Hawaii to spay and neuter their dogs and cats, but it’s difficult to enforce.

Hawaii’s governor David Ige recently added feral cats to the state’s list of invasive species, citing their impact on the islands’ endangered birds, mammals, and reptiles.

“Is the problem preventable? Yes, but is it easy to prevent? Not necessarily,” says Amlin. “It’s hard to figure out what to do when you have so many cats on the landscape, and you have strong differing opinions from locals on how to deal with it.”

Conrad, the veterinary parasitologist, says the best thing pet owners can do is keep their cats indoors. “Cats that are kept inside will live longer, healthier lives, there’s good data on that. If we lose these monk seals, we lose them forever.”

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