Tech & Science A New State Of Matter: 3D Quantum Liquid Crystal

14:55  21 april  2017
14:55  21 april  2017 Source:   International Business Times

Palace join the race to sign Ligue 2 midfielder

  Palace join the race to sign Ligue 2 midfielder Crystal Palace have joined Stoke, Bournemouth and Aston Villa in the race to sign Amiens’ midfielder Guessouma Fofana, according to the Daily Mail. The report suggests that scouts from the clubs spent Friday in France, watching the player during Amiens’ game against Le Havre on Friday. Amiens won the game 2-0 – although Fofana was on the peripheral for the majority of the game. He has enjoyed a promising season, scoring three times and contributing three assists in the league. The Frenchman has made 32 appearances since joining Amiens in 2015 and made himself eligible for the Malian national team at the age of 20. Sam Allardyce appears to be on course to guide Palace to Premier League safety and will have one eye on strengthening his squad ready for next season. Allardyce did sign Luka Milivojević during the January transfer window, but with rumours surrounding the future of Yohan Cabaye still circling around Selhurst Park, he will be keen to strengthen in the middle of the park.

At right, the crystal has become a 3 D quantum liquid crystal , showing a drastic departure from the pattern due to the atomic lattice alone. In a 3 D liquid crystal , the electrons behave the way molecules do in 2D liquid crystals , giving the material very unusual magnetic properties.

Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three -dimensional quantum liquid crystal — a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future.

  A New State Of Matter: 3D Quantum Liquid Crystal © Provided by IBT US Discovered in 1999 in California Institute of Technology, 2D liquid crystals have been around for over a decade, and are commonly used in displays of televisions, smartphones, watches and so on. And led by physicists at Caltech, a team of researchers has now discovered a 3D version of liquid crystals, which can find applications in quantum computing.

Liquid crystals are called such because they have properties of both solids and liquids. Molecules within the material flow freely like a liquid, but are all oriented in the same direction like is seen in solids.

In a statement Thursday on the university’s website, John Harter, a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech and lead author of a new paper on 3D liquid crystals, explained how 2D quantum liquid crystals behave in strange ways: “Electrons living in this flatland collectively decide to flow preferentially along the x-axis rather than the y-axis even though there's nothing to distinguish one direction from the other.”

Palace join the race to sign Ligue 2 midfielder

  Palace join the race to sign Ligue 2 midfielder Crystal Palace have joined Stoke, Bournemouth and Aston Villa in the race to sign Amiens’ midfielder Guessouma Fofana, according to the Daily Mail. The report suggests that scouts from the clubs spent Friday in France, watching the player during Amiens’ game against Le Havre on Friday. Amiens won the game 2-0 – although Fofana was on the peripheral for the majority of the game. He has enjoyed a promising season, scoring three times and contributing three assists in the league. The Frenchman has made 32 appearances since joining Amiens in 2015 and made himself eligible for the Malian national team at the age of 20. Sam Allardyce appears to be on course to guide Palace to Premier League safety and will have one eye on strengthening his squad ready for next season. Allardyce did sign Luka Milivojević during the January transfer window, but with rumours surrounding the future of Yohan Cabaye still circling around Selhurst Park, he will be keen to strengthen in the middle of the park.

In April, scientists discovered evidence for this new state of matter in alpha ruthenium chloride — a two-dimensional material with a honeycomb structure. “We have proved empirically that interesting quantum states like spin liquids can also occur in considerably more complex crystals with different

Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three -dimensional quantum liquid crystal -- a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future.

In a 3D liquid crystal, the electrons behave the way molecules do in 2D liquid crystals, giving the material very unusual magnetic properties.

“Running an electrical current through these materials transforms them from nonmagnets into magnets, which is highly unusual. What’s more, in every direction that you can flow current, the magnetic strength and magnetic orientation changes. Physicists say that the electrons ‘break the symmetry’ of the lattice,” David Hsieh, principal investigator on the study and whose lab Harter is a part of, said in the statement.

The discovery of the material by Harter was almost accidental. He was studying the atomic structure of a metal compound of the element rhenium, and the data his experiments revealed about its crystal structure made little sense to him. That is, till such time as he read about the concept of 3D liquid crystals, articulated in a 2015 paper by Liang Fu, a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Then, everything made sense.

This new material could help with quantum computing by being used to create a topological superconductor, which is integral to a technique called topological quantum computing. Developed by another Caltech professor, this technique can theoretically get around the inherent difficulty of quantum properties being very fragile and easily disrupted.

The study, titled “A parity-breaking electronic nematic phase transition in the spin-orbit coupled metal Cd2Re2O7,” appeared Friday in the journal Science.

VIDEO REVIEW | Crystal Palace 0-1 Tottenham .
In this week’s e-Crystal Palace Podcast, I review the game against Tottenham by giving you my match review, player rankings as well as my Man of the Match. Palace suffered just a second defeat in nine games as they lost out 1-0 at home. Crystal Palace held Tottenham for much of the game, battled well throughout and looked to be heading for a decent point to keep their fine run of form going but fell behind to a 30-yarder from Christian Erikson 17 minutes from time. The evening also hosted a nasty looking knee injury to Mamadou Sakho that saw the influential defender stretched off in some agony early in the second half. How much of a miss will Mamadou Sakho be? Will Palace avoid the drop? All this and more in this week’s e-Crystal Palace Podcast. Subscribe to The e-Crystal Palace Podcast for more weekly podcasts and opinion pieces from Palace fans. You can follow e-Crystal Palace on Twitter and Facebook.

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